How to read

This page in | ITA | CAS | FRA |

Note: intro pages are written (when not translated) in "surrounding-venetian" language, with Galepin graphics, and accented by following the rule described in this page.

This on-line version of our dictionary is written with a phonetical-traditional graphical system, as stated on the "Manuale di grafia veneta unitaria", edited in 1995 by the local government culture office. You can find it on-line by clicking here. As a traditional system, it is not far away from the writing systems adopted in the last centuries by romance languages, and as a "phonetical" one, it cannot be read ambigously: only one sound correspond to the sign you're reading. This is like in german or slavs writings. Other Graphical Systems: Click here to change

Well, English is a litte harder... click here to learn more.

So, how did Venetians say "Venice"? - Well, the original Venetian term up to the 16th century was (in venet graphics) "Venièxia", then "Venèxia", and now they says "Venèsia", that is venetization of the florentine term "Venezia". Words in El Galepin are always written as our ancestors did during the ages, that is how the language was, or is now pronounced. Refer to the following table, and try to read the Venet translations for "Venice" and speak how Venetians did through the centuries.

Diacritics: as a professional tool, el Galepin has diacritics on all words, to provide real pronunciation for each term without implementing a complicated accentation system. Common accentation systems are in use in Venetia; here's another page where You can find an example (for advanced users).


Symbol Alternative traditional Pronounce it as...
a (à)
as "u" in english "guts"
same as English, "b" in "band", "bow"
c, ch k as "k" in "kite"
(c+i, c+e) č as "ch" in english "chat", "chunk", "choice"
-c (1) č at the end of a word; read as "ch" in "rich", "much", "tch" in "match",
same as English, "d" as in "dog"
dh đ as "th" in "then", "than", "that"
as "e" in "bet"
é (e)
as "i" in "bit"
same as English, "f" as in "fat"

rare and disappearing, "ph" as in "phone" (aspirated, without the upper teeth touching the lower lip)

g, gh
as "g" in "great", "gap"
(g+i, g+e) ǧ as "j" in "jet", "joke"
gn ñ

as in Spanish ñ as in mañana

i (ì)
as "i" in english "issue"
as "y" in "yellow", "young"
used instead of "C" when at the end of a word, as in english "k" in "break", "speak"
same as English, "l" as in "lean", "lamb"
typical Venet, semi-vowel, pronounced between a full L and an E (without the tongue touching the palate)
same as English, "m" as in "mat"
n (2)
same as English, "n" as in "net"
as "o" in "got", "lot", "pot"
ó (o)
comme "eau" en français "beau"
same as English, "p" as in "pen", "pin", "pot"
a rolled R, except in Venice where it is pronounced almost English style; como en español
s (3)
same as English, "s" as in "sing", "same"
sh (4) š disappearing sound, read as english "sh" in "shape", "shower"
sci, sce (5) sči, sče as "st" in "bastion", pronounce it "s" + "ci"/"ce" how it's written

same as English, "t" as in "tin", "tan"

u (ù)
as "oo" in "boot", "loot"
same as English, "v" as in "vat"
as "z" in "zebra"
as "dz" in "Godzilla"
zh th, ẑ almost like "th" in "thin"
ç ʒ as "tz" in "Ritz"

indicates hiatus
as internationally known (i.e. german)
as internationally known (i.e. german)

(1) when we print out something we adopt the proper symbol "č" or "ċ", although not necessary into the venetian graphical system
(2) when preceding a consonant, and at the end of a word has a nasal sound
(3) s (+ b, d, g, l, m, n, r, v): unlike in English, when preceding these consonants it is pronounced as "z" in "zebra", otherwise the alternative notation is "...ssm...", "...ssl..." and so on.
(4) "sh" isn't a traditional symbol; when we print out professional editions you will find the proper symbol "š"
(5) for printed editions we adopt the proper symbol "sči"/"sče" or "sċi"/"sċe", although not necessary in Venetian languages